improper development of
cartilage at the ends of the long bones resulting in a form of congenital
acute moist dermatitis
See Hot Spots.
Animals that have
or are highly likely to develop an inherited disease during their
lifetime. For example, affected with irreversible blindness from PRA.
An obstacle race for dogs.
Dogs and handlers complete course made up of jumps, A-frames, dog walks,
weave pole, tunnels and other apparatus at a controlled pace. Speed and
accuracy are important in developing the skills required for agility.
An organized group
of dog fanciers, recognized by the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) and/or American
Kennel Club (AKC) to hold all-breed dog shows and performance events within
their geographic boundaries. New clubs are considered "Sanctioned" which
means that although they are officially recognized, they are not yet authorized
to hold pointed shows. "Licensed" clubs have successfully completed a series
of pre-requisite qualifying events, and are now authorized to conduct official
all-breed events which award points. "Member" clubs are licensed clubs
who have opted to have a representative regularly attend and represent
their interests as a voting member club of the CKC and/or AKC. An important
requisite mission that all clubs must perform is their duty to educate
the general public on responsible dog ownership, breeding practices, and
the multi-faceted world of purebred dogs.
An event where dogs
are judged as to how closely each CONFORMS (hence the term "conformation")
to it's own breed's written standard of perfection. Often shows are accompanied
by Obedience Trials, Junior Showmanship Competition, and some non-regular
class events, such as sweepstakes and futurities or Canine Good Citizen
tests. Exhibitors are usually happy to talk to you about their breed, their
breeding program, etc. *after* they have finished showing. Please do not
touch or feed the dogs without first receiving the owner's direct permission.
An alternative form
of a gene; a single allele for each gene is inherited separately from each
domesticated llama with
long silky fleece; believed to be a domesticated variety of the guanaco.
a protein excreted by
the fetus into the amniotic fluid and from there into the mother's bloodstream
through the placenta.
thalassemia due to a deficiency
of alpha chains. the usual cause is deletion of alpha genes.
Organized in the late
1800's, the AKC is a body of licensed clubs whose stated mission is to:
Maintain a registry
for purebred dogs and preserve its integrity. Sanction dog events that
promote interest in, and sustain the process of, breeding for type and
function of purebred dogs.
The AKC's stated objective
is to advance the study, breeding, exhibiting, running and maintenance
of purebred dogs.
AKC states its' core
bond, which is perpetuated and supported by purpose-bred dogs for companionship,
sport, work, service, etc., is valuable. Dogs bring joy and people who
keep dogs as pets feel safer and live longer. All dogs are wonderful, but
purpose bred or purebred dogs are more predictable in many important ways
than random- bred dogs and therefore make better pets. Pet ownership is
more widespread in the US today than in any other country of the world,
at any time in history. More than 50% of all households have pets; 36%
keep dogs, about a third of which are recognizable breeds.
Breeding for type
and function to create, preserve and improve breeds ties modern urban populations
with the 12,000 year tradition of animal husbandry, now vanishing from
the rest of our culture. In the last 100 years, this country, along with
the rest of the Western world, has undergone what many historians call
the most dramatic transformation in human history. It is the shift from
rural, agricultural society to an urban technological one. When AKC was
created, more than half of all Americans lived on farms. Even at the turn
of the century, 85% of all jobs were agriculturally based. Today, less
than one in fifty Americans lives on a farm but more than 50% of households
maintains positive contact with animals by keeping pets. Very few people
have hands-on experience in animal husbandry anymore-- and that make AKC's
constituents unique subject matter experts in an area that touches and
matters to half of all households. AKC breeders are the experts, the preservationist,
the ones who tie society to its past and support society's present need
to maintain the human/animal bond."
a procedure in which
a needle is inserted from outside the abdomen and just below the umbilicus
into the amniotic sac to obtain a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis.
analysis of the contents of the sample yield information on the maturity,
well-being and sex of the fetus, hereditary diseases, if present.
feeling tired, weak, short
of breath, because of having too few red blood-cells.
a birth defect resulting
in puppies being born with underdeveloped brains and incomplete skulls.
most puppies born with anencephaly do not survive more than a few hours
cessation of breathing
A number printed on
paper which an exhibitor wears to indicate the entered dog's (or Junior's)
reference number in the judge's book and catalog. This number is the only
identification that the judge is allowed access to before and during the
Items used in Obedience
Trial competition which are utilized in exercises testing retrieval on
command or scent discrimination. These can be wooden, leather or metal
the placement of a sperm
sample inside the female reproductive tract.
a chronic respiratory
disease often arising from allergies, that is characterized by sudden recurring
attacks of labored breathing, and chest constriction, and coughing.
Having pale or colorless
skin, eyes, and hair because the body does not produce enough pigment.
A prenatal test to measure
the amount of a fetal protein in the mother's blood. Abnormal amounts of
the protein may indicate genetic problems in the fetus.
A prenatal test in which
cells surrounding a fetus are removed in order to examine the chromosomes.
The injection of semen
into a bitch's uterus (not through sexual intercourse) in order to make
A chromosome that
is not a sex (X or Y) chromosome.
Very small, single-celled
life-forms that can reproduce quickly.
When used as a verb,
as "to bait the dog" or "to freebait," this refers to using an item of
food or toy to gain the dogs' attention; showing expression and animation
to the judge.
When used as a noun,
it refers to items of food (usually cooked liver, cheese, or other treat)
used to bait the dog to show expression and animation.
ingredients found in the genetic material of all life-forms.
The study of whether and
how traits for behavior are inherited.
An all-breed show
specifically designed for public education and enjoyment, wherein all dogs
are required to stay in an assigned "benching area" for the duration of
the show, (except when being exercised, groomed, or exhibited) in order
that the public may easily view the exhibits up close and talk to the breeders,
owners, and handlers. There are very few benched shows left in the USA
- the ones that readily come to mind are Westminster Kennel Club in New
York City, International Kennel Club in Chicago, and Golden Gate in San
Francisco. These are very large, heavily attended shows by the public.
Excellent for the public, but can be exhausting for the exhibitors.
Best In Show (BIS)
A coveted award given
to the ONE dog who, at the end of an all-breed dog show, has successfully
defeated ALL other dogs of all breeds entered that day - by being judged
to be the dog who - on that day, is considered to be the most closely conforming
to it's own breed's written standard of excellence. The rosette given for
a BIS win is red, white and blue.
Best Junior Handler
The award given to
the ONE Junior Handler at an all-breed or specialty show, who is judged
to have exhibited the highest degree of skill in presenting their dog as
effectively and skillfully as possible, by way of defeating the balance
of other junior handling entrants. The rosette given for a BJH win is pink
Best of Winners (BOW)
A competition between
the Winners Dog and the Winners Bitch, held during the Best of Breed Competition,
whereby the two dogs are judged as to which one is considered to be most
closely conformed to its written breed standard. The winner of BOW receives
the highest number of points given to that breed's WD or WB that day. For
instance, if it was only two points in Dogs that day, and 4 points in Bitches,
and the Dog won Best of Winners, he, too would be awarded 4 points.
The use of living
things to make products.
A female dog. NOT
a dirty word. Get used to it.
the inability to see or
the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. this condition may
be the result of disorders in the organs of sight or of damage or injury
to certain areas of the brain.
This is a term that
is synonymous with the more scientific term "Gastric Dilatation/Volvulus."
It is often called GDV. That means that a dog's stomach distends with air
to the point that it goes into shock and may die.
the inner, spongy
tissue of bones where red blood cells, white blood cells are formed.
Two dogs of the same breed
and exact same ownership being shown together as a pair in order to display
the breeder's consistency in their breeding program. Dogs selected to be
shown in a brace should display the same attributes, virtues, style and
type. Brace competition is a non-regular competition and no points are
a gene that normaly helps
to restrain cell growth
A competitive class
in conformation, the Bred by Exhibitor class is a breeder's showcase of
the specimens s/he is most proud of - and those that they wish to represent
the best of their kennel. Exhibits must be shown by the actual breeder
of record - not a handler. AKC has recently implemented a program to award
dogs who finish their championships entirely from the BBE class. A medallion
is given to the breeder as special recognition.
Used as a verb, to
breed is to cause the reproduction of two animals. As a noun, the term
"Breed" is used to describe a particular sub-species of animals of similar
type and heritage, who have been carefully and intentionally bred to meet
certain functional, temperamental, and physical characteristics. "Breed
competition" or "in the breed ring" are also common references to competiting
in the conformation classes at a dog show.
A written standard
of excellence describing the functional, temperamental, and physical attributes
which the dedicated students and caretakers of the breed - via their national
parent organization, have agreed upon as the official description of perfection
for their particular breed.
A HUGE (2,500+ dogs)
dog show held annually outside of Vancouver, Washington.
called "the crazy 5 minutes", is when your pup suddenly starts running
in circles at top speed with his rear tucked under him. Most Labradors
do this. It does not indicate a problem with your Lab, either with its
temperament or its joints. However, you will want to keep a sharp eye out
that you are not injured during this free-for-all!
To enter and compete
in a large number of shows with a Champion of Record (a "Special") - in
order to obtain national rankings by way of defeating the greatest number
of other dogs. Most commonly done by using the services of a Professional
Handler. Requires a substantial investment and an excellent dog and handler.
To enter and compete
in a large number of obedience trials at the Open or Utility level. Points
are accumulated with the scores achieved. Top dogs are recognized by the
CKC and/or the AKC for placements in both the breed and group. An overall
"Top 10" list is accumulated of the dogs and handlers that achieve the
highest point totals in their respective countries during a calendar year.
Canine Anal Gland Disease
Disorders in the anal
sacs of dogs
There are 3 diseases
that occur in the anal sacs.
1) When the fluid
becomes thick and solidified, the condition is called impaction.
2) When bacteria grow
in this material producing a yellow or bloody pus, the condition is called
3) When the infection
builds to create a hot, tender swelling in the sac, the condition is called
When the abscessed
material overflows the sac, the skin over the sac breaks open, and the
pus drains onto the skin.
Canine Distemper (CDV)
infection is an old disease affecting all members of the canine family.
Distemper is a highly contagious disease that is complicated by severe
secondary bacterial infection. This disease is usually seen in younger
dogs that have not been protected by vaccination.
canine good citizen
certification program aimed mostly towards the general public as an encouragement
to buy/breed only temperamentally sound dogs, and to do at least a *little*
obedience training, so that their dogs will be welcome, safe, and happy
in public situations. Dogs and their handlers are put through a series
of simple exercises such as walking on lead through a crowd of strangers,
sitting on command, standing for examination, response to being left alone
for a moment, etc. Successful participants are given a certificate of achievement.
Although the "CGC" is NOT an official AKC title, many people are proud
to list this among their dogs accomplishments, as it represents that the
dog is of stable temperament in public.
a term for diseases
in which abnormal cells divide without control. cancer cells can invade
nearby tissue and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system
to other parts of the body.
A dog who has one
copy of the gene mutation for a recessive disorder. Carriers are not affected
by the disorder. However, they can pass on the mutated gene to their puppies.
Puppies who inherit two such genes may be affected by the disorder.
A document sold at
shows which lists each entered dog's entry number, class entered, registered
name and number, breeder, owner, sire, dam, and date of birth. Excellent
tool for following along with the competition and looking for patterns
in breeding that you prefer, as well as breeders and exhibitors to contact.
If the show also has obedience classes the catalogue will list each dog
by class and entry numbers. It will also list the same information about
the handler and dog as for the conformation classes.
Canine Eye Research
Foundation - maintains database of information that is generated by examinations
done by ACVO Diplomates and a DNA database of information that is generated
by genetic testing laboratories endorsed by a breed club. CERF is located
at the Purdue University's School of Veterinary Medicine.
In AKC competition,
a Champion of Record ("CH") title is given to a dog or bitch who has won
a total of 15 points at licensed AKC shows. At least 6 of these points
must have come from "Major" wins (see "Points") under different judges.
A Champion of Record may then enter and compete in the Best of Breed competition,
and the "CH" becomes an official prefix to the dog's registered name.
In CKC competition,
a Champion of Record ("CH") title is given to a dog or bitch earning 10
points at licensed CKC shows under at least 3 different judges. As with
the AKC, a Champion of Record may then enter and compete in the Best of
Breed competition, and the "CH" becomes an official prefix to the dog's
Champions are often
referred to as "specials" - usually when they are being actively campaigned.
Champions of Record also used to be commonly referred to as "bench champions"
referring to the formerly common practice of holding benched shows.
As a noun, a "choke"
is a metal, nylon, or leather collar consisting of a straight piece of
the material, usually joined by looping it through one of two rings on
each end. This is the most common collar worn by dogs in the breed ring.
Worn properly, with the pull loop coming off the top of the head, this
does NOT actually choke the dog, but rather gives a quick correction to
get the dog's attention. It immediately releases. Kind of a quick "Hello?!"
or "Hey, knock it off!" signal from the handler to the dog.
chorionic villus sampling
A prenatal test in
which cells surrounding an embryo are removed in order to examine the chromosomes.
Separate strands of
genes, contained in the nucleus of a cell. Normally, chromosomes appear
in corresponding pairs. A genome is made up of a complete set of paired
citrullinemia is one
of several hereditary urea cycle disorders. these disorders are caused
by a deficiency of one of the enzymes needed for the incorporation of ammonia
into urea, which is normally secreted in the urine. the deficiencies cause
an excess of ammonia in the blood and body tissues. in citrullinemia the
deficient enzyme is argininosuccinic acid synthetase. if left untreated,
the disorder manifests itself by an elevated level of toxic ammonia in
the blood (hyperammonemia). this imbalance may lead to brain damage and
eventually to coma. this deficiency causes elevations in blood levels of
citrulline, alanine, glutamine, homocitrulline, carnosine, and ammonia.
inborn error of urea
synthesis, citrullinemia type.
urea cycle disorder,
The Canadian Kennel
Club is devoted to encouraging, guiding and advancing the interests of
purebred dogs and their responsible owners and breeders in Canada. It promotes
the knowledge and understanding of the benefits which dogs can bring to
Canada and the means by which these benefits can most effectively be enjoyed.
The CKC cooperates
with governments at all levels in Canada in the development of legislation
which will effectively control the activities of irresponsible dog owners
and breeders without unduly restricting responsible owners and breeders.
The C.K.C maintains a system of registration of purebred dogs that satisfies
the requirements of the Animal Pedigree Act, Agriculture Canada and the
It maintains a system
whereby clubs and associations wishing to do so may hold dogs shows, obedience
trials, field trials and other trials, tests and activities for purebred
dogs under the auspices of and in accordance with the rules, regulations,
standards, policies and procedures established by the Club. It encourages
and assists persons and organizations engaged in these activities and co-operates
with other associations and clubs engaged in furthering the interests of
Canine Leukocyte Adhesion
Deficiency - an autosomal recessive disease of the immune system
that causes severe and fatal infections in young pups, so far recognized
only in the Irish Setter.
Although there ARE
actual instructional classes available to learn to handle dogs in many
performance events, the most common use of the term "Classes" is when referring
to the different class divisions which are available to show your dog in
when entered at a dog show. In conformation, the "class dogs" (those who
have not finished their championships) are divided first by sex (males
go in first), then further divided by age group and experience level.
Puppy 6 months to
under 9 months ("6 to 9")
Puppy 9 months to
under 12 months ("9 to 12")
Junior 12 months to
under 18 months ("12 to 18") (Specialties only)
Novice (for unpointed
Bred By Exhibitor
("Bred-By" - shown by the dog's breeder)
- bred & whelped in the USA)
Open (open to all
purebred dogs at least 6 mos old, but usually containing fully mature dogs)
The first place winners
of each of these classes in each sex compete for Winners Dog or Winners
Bitch. These two remaining dogs are the only dogs of that breed who, at
that show, receive points towards their championships. These two dogs also
compete in the Best of Breed that day.
In obedience competition,
the following classes exist:
Novice A - dogs and
handlers that are trying to obtain a CD for the first time
Novice B - dogs and
handlers that are trying to obtain a CD that have an OTCH on a dog or are
Open A - dogs and
handlers that are trying to obtain a CDX for the first time
Open B - dogs and
handlers that have obtained a CDX or are professional trainers.
- those trying to obtain the UD and OTCH designation
Utility A (American)
- those trying to obtain the UD title for the first time
Utility B (American)
- those trying to obtain an OTCH in the US
In obedience competition,
dogs and handlers compete for "LEGS" which are qualifying scores of 170
or more out of a possible 200. To earn a title, a dog and handler must
get 3 "LEGS" under at least 2 different judges.
Determined to be free
of a condition, disease or specific gene either by test breedings
or by molecular testing. See also 'Genetically clear' and 'Normal'.
the process of making
genetically identical copies.
The last date by which
entries must be received by the show superintendent or secretary, in order
for an entry to be valid and included in the show's competition. Entries
usually close 4 weeks prior to the show date in order to allow the club
to arrange the judging schedule and prepare and print the catalogs etc.
Closing dates are always listed clearly in the premium lists, as well as
in the CKC's "Dogs in Canada" magazine for Canadian Shows or for American
shows, the AKC's Gazette
color test identifies the actual mutations in a gene which causes
expression of black or red coat color. the test identifies the genotype
of an animal as homozygous black (can only produce black offspring) or
red carrier (can produce black or red offspring)
The trachea, also
known as the windpipe, is an important structure which connects the throat
to the lungs. It serves the purpose of directing air into the respiratory
The normal trachea
is tubular. It maintains its shape because of a series of rings made of
cartilage. These rings do not completely encircle the trachea. Instead,
they go from the 2 o'clock to 10 o'clock positions. The remainder of the
trachea is composed of a flexible membrane that joins the ends of the cartilage
When the cartilage
rings are flattened from the top to the bottom, the trachea is said to
be collapsed. Rapid inhalation of air can cause the trachea to flatten
and make it difficult for air to enter the lungs.
A common form of cancer,
in which cancer cells are found in the tissues of the colon. the colon
is part of the body's digestive system. the purpose of the digestive system
is to remove nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
and water) from the foods eaten and to store the waste until it passes
out of the body.
How well a specific
dog's structure, type and temperament conform to it's breed's written standard
is also commonly referred to as "breed competition."
The term "dog confirmation,"
on the other hand, is reserved for dogs who confirm their faith by regularly
attending Catholic Mass.
consanguineous individuals have at least one common ancestor in the preceding
In reproduction, the point
at which a sperm fertilizes an egg.
retention of copper
in the liver to the extent that, when present in large amounts, it becomes
toxic to the system. copper toxicosis has been diagnosed in 53 breeds of
AKA "stool-eating', "feces-eating" or "poop-eating", is the eating of excrement
and can involve the dog's own, another dog's, or another species of animal's
stools. Some only eat their own, others eat only other animals, some don't
discriminate. It is not unusual, and is seen more frequently in young dogs;
nor is it unnatural, after all the brood bitch does this routinely to clean
up after her very young pups; hence they are exposed to this activity right
from the onset. This does NOT mean that you should stop a brood bitch from
this normal, healthy, and necessary activity with her pups.
coronary artery disease
The term coronary
artery disease refers to any abnormal condition of the coronary arteries
that interferes with the delivery of an adequate supply of blood to the
heart muscle. when the heart muscle does not get enough oxygenated blood
to meet its demand, it experiences a hunger for more oxygen.
A large benched dog
show held in February in San Francisco's Cow Palace by the Golden Gate
Kennel Club. Heavily attended by the public. Considered a larger show in
size than Westminster.
A containment unit
used to safely transport and house a dog during rest periods. Dogs feel
very safe and secure in their crates, which double as their private "dens."
Crates are a CRITICAL piece of safety equipment for ALL dogs travelling
in cars. Crates function in much the same way as does a child's safety
seat; preventing dogs from being hurled through glass windows during a
collision, and taking the impact of a crash. DOGS (and people for that
matter) SHOULD *NEVER* ride loose in the back of a truck. If you wouldn't
allow your three year old barefoot human child to stand on a hot or wet
and slippery truckbed floor with no protection from the elements or from
the effects of a sudden stop, bump, turn, or collision, why would you allow
your dog??!! Illegal in most states and grounds for *immediate* and non-negotiable,
contractually enforced return of any dog we adopt into a new family.
Where a section of
one chromosome switches places with the same section from the other chromosome
of the pair. This sometimes occurs when a germ cell makes copies of its
chromosomes before dividing.
The lower spinal region
of a dog, containing the back of the pelvis to the root of the tail.
dog show of the year, held outside of London, England each March.
sacs of fluid that cause
the kidney to enlarge and can hinder its filtering ability. cysts also
squeeze on blood vessels forcing the pressure to rise.
an inherited disease in
which a thick mucus clogs the lungs and blocks the ducts of the pancreas.
the study of chromosomes.
A collection of information
organized so that specific facts can be retrieved as needed. Today, many
data banks are organized on computers.
a synthetic hormone
that is not a blood product.
is a parasitic skin disease caused by microscopic mites. Two different
mange mites cause skin disease in dogs. One lives just under the surface
of the skin ,while the other resides in the hair follicles. Although both
mites share some similar characteristics, there are also important differences.
It is important not to confuse the two types of mange because they have
different causes, treatments, and prognoses.
a disorder caused
by decreased production of insulin, or by decreased ability to use insulin.
insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is necessary for cells
to be able to use blood sugar.
having a full set
of genetic material consisting of paired chromosomes that contain one chromosome
from each parent.
See: heartworm disease
Problems in how the body
functions. Health problems caused by mutations in the genes are referred
to as genetic disorders.
The longspiralling molecule that orchestrates the cell's daily operations
and provides the genetic blueprint for the physical characteristics of
all living organisms. when made up of two strands, the strands intertwine
like a spiral staircase to form a structure called a double helix. subunits,
called bases, are the rungs of the staircase.
A unique pattern of dna
fragments as revealed by southern hybridization or by the polymerase chain
Determining the order
of bases in a segment of dna.
The analysis of sections
of DNA for purposes of identification.
a term to describe a MALE canine. Generally, a term used to describe the
The form of a gene
(allele) that dominates. Alleles that determine the phenotype displayed
in a heterozygote with another (recessive) allele. The normal prcd allele
dominates over the mutant allele, as do the normal rcd1, normal CSNB and
normal CLAD alleles..
is caused by the rickettsial organism Ehrlichia canis. Other examples of
rickettsial organisms are Riskettsia rickettsi, which causes Rocky Mountain
Spotted Fever and Ehrlichia risticii, which causes Potomac Fever in horses.
These orgainisms tend to be carried by ticks and other insect vectors,
in some cases. For ehrlichiosis, the most common vector is the brown dog
tick. For this reason, ehrlichiosis occurs anywhere this tick occurs. At
present, it has been reported in 34 states, with the northern states being
spared in most instances. The southeastern and south central states are
the most heavily affected. A few cases of Ehrlichia canis infection have
been reported in people after tick bites.
Intolerance and Collapse" or "Exercise Induced Collapse". Affected
dogs can tolerate mild to moderate exercise, but 5 to 20 minutes of strenuous
exercise with extreme excitement induces weakness and then collapse. Severely
affected dogs may collapse whenever they are exercised to this extent -
other dogs only exhibit collapse sporadically.
dysplasia is the term for an elbow joint that is malformed on X-rays.
The mechanism of the malformation is unclear but it may be due to differences
in the growth rates of the three bones that make up the elbow joint, particularly
the humerus and ulna.
An animal in the early
stage of development before birth.
The nongenetic conditions
and circumstances that affect a dog's conduct and health.
Proteins that trigger
activity in the cells of the body. An enzyme is not affected by the activity
that it sets off.
a test done by an ophthalmologist to assess the functioning of the
retina, the light sensing and vision producing layer of cells at the back
of the eye. The disease PRA causes an abnormal ERG that can be measured
earlier in some breeds than in others. To establish PRA affected
status by ERG, it is necessary that a full diagnostic protocol be done
with dogs under anesthesia or heavy sedation, and that the rod and cone
contributions of the ERG be separately evaluated.
Questions concerning what
is moral or right.
The process by which all
forms of plant and animal life change slowly over time because of slight
variations in the genes that one generation passes down to the next.
A handy term used
to refer to one's former spouse (you know - the one who hated dogs :) --OR--
an abbreviation for the verb to exercise (potty) one's dog - allowing them
to eliminate, stretch their legs, etc. As in "I'm going to ex the dogs
A portable wire fencing
unit taken to shows to allow dogs a safe, clean place to eliminate and
ex utero genetic testing
DNA analysis performed
on cells of eggs that have been fertilized in vitro.
An occasional genetic
marker-based test result that occurs because the marker DNA that is usually
associated with the mutant gene is associated with the non-mutated gene.
Known to occur with the prcd-PRA test.
There is a condition
in female dogs known as "ovarian
remnant syndrome" in which a spayed female continues to
exhibit signs of estrus
(heat periods. Usually this occurs because a portion of an ovary was left
in the abdomen during the spay surgery. This can happen several ways --
sometimes the surgeon doesn't have a clear view of the ovary for some reason
(obesity, not having a big enough incision, bleeding, etc.) and a portion
is simply missed, other times it is a piece of the ovary is accidentally
dropped as it is removed and reimplants in the abdomen.
An animal in the later
stage of development before birth.
In conformation competition,
to finish means to have won enough points to be awarded the title of Champion
of Record. In obedience a finish is a transitional movement the dog makes
between the completion of a recall, and the return to the heel position.
a mapping technique
that uses fluorescent tags to identify specific locations of chromosomes.
are parasites, which means that they are small organisms that live in or
on (and at the expense of) a larger organism (the "host" animal). Some
parasites cause no problems, others cause discomfort and annoyance, and
still others can lead to life-threatening disease. Fleas are small, wingless
insects that are parasites on dogs, cats, pigs, rodents, birds, and humans.
Adult fleas suck the blood of their hosts, and they are known to survive
for months while waiting for a victim to come by. There are several species
of fleas, but the most widespread among both cats and dogs is the cat flea,
Ctenocephalides felis. This flea's cousin, the dog flea, Ctenocephalides
canis, also occurs, but is less common.
"Flexi-Lead" is the
common brand name of a retractable, spring loaded lead which allows a dog
to wander and traverse at a distance from the handler without getting caught
up in the lead itself. Not used in competition, but a god-send for casual
walks and exercises. Available at any large pet supply store or from vendors
at a show.
A canine sport for
dogs. A relay race with consisting of 4 dogs that individually run over
4 hurdles placed 10 feet apart and retrieve a tennis ball after triggering
a box. The dog must then return back over the jumps with the tennis ball
in their mouth. Once the dog has crossed the finish line, the next dog
goes. Once all 4 dogs have completed, the race is over. This sport is played
with two lanes and whichever team crosses the finish line first wins the
race. Dogs compete for titles as well as for rosettes for defeating other
To use food, toy,
or some other enticement to get the dog to stack properly (without physical
interaction from the handler) and show alert, animated expression while
standing in the breed ring being judged. The term "free" comes from "hands-free."
A non-regular competition
whereby the breeder nominates a litter before it is whelped, and enters
the produce from that litter in a special competition (usually held at
National Specialty Shows). The idea is that these dogs represent that breeders
best efforts in researching and planing their highest quality litter for
that year, based upon their knowledge, understanding and confidence of
the genetic potential of the proposed breeding.
The most efficient
way of moving for a particular dog. Most breeds are gaited at a trot or
Slang for the Westminster
Kennel Club's high visibility, prestigious, and well respected benched
show held in New York City's Madison Square Garden each February. Normally
held and internationally televised on the Monday and Tuesday of the second
week in February each year. The '98 show will be held during the third
week in February, due to scheduling conflicts with Madision Square Garden.
The fundamental physical
and functional unit of inheritance; the ordered sequence of nucleotides
located in a certain position on a chromosome that encodes a specific functional
Any process by which
specific dna sequences are replicated disproportionately greater than their
representation in the parent molecules; during development, some genes
become amplified in specific tissues.
of the relative positions of genes on a chromosome and the distance between
The technology used
to genetically manipulate livingcells to produce new chemical or perform
genetic linkage map
Chromosome map showing
the relative positions of the known genes on the chromosomes of a given
genetic linkage study
Examination of the DNA
of family members to determine who may be at risk for a genetic disorder
occurring in the family tree. Doctors look for variations that consistently
appear in the DNA of family members with the disorder. These DNA variations
may or may not be related to the genetic disorder. However, if they appear
in the DNA of another family member, it can indicate the dog's risk of
inheriting the disorder.
A collection of information
about a dog's genes.
The field of science
that looks at how traits are passed down from one generation to another,
through the genes.
genetic testing (screening)
to identify defective genes capable of causing heritable conditions.
An animal that is
OptiGen tested pattern A. It is absolutely certain that this animal
does not carry the PRA-mutant gene.
All of the genetic
material (DNA) in the chromosomes of a particular organism/individual.
The genetic constitution
of an organism/individual. The genotype for some specific conditions can
be determined by complete pedigree information or, more reliably, by molecular
genetic testing. As an example, the CSNB carrier genotype of a Briard includes
one normal allele and one mutant allele for the CSNB gene.
The cells of the body
involved in reproduction. Sperm of the male and eggs of the female are
formed from germ cells.
The altering of genes
in reproductive cells (sperm or egg) in order to affect their function
in any offspring that may be created.
The offspring of a
To bathe, dry, comb,
clip and scissors a dog to best exhibit its virtues. Very strict rules
and traditions govern "correct" grooming, and significant talent and experience
is required to become excellent at show-grooming the coated breeds.
Groupings of dogs
by their traditional functional similarities. The AKC and CKC currently
has seven groups;
Sporting (dogs used
for upland gamebird hunting i.e. retrievers, pointers, setters, spaniels)
Hound (dogs who track
by sight or scent)
Working (guard, pulling
and/or rescue dogs)
Terrier (dogs who
were bred to kill vermin)
Toy (dogs who were
bred strictly as small companions to people)
whose original job no longer exists, or who no longer are used for their
Herding (Dogs bred
to gather and move livestock - formerly part of the Working Group)
Each recognized breed
belongs to a specific Group. Each breed awards a Best of Breed (BOB) winner
to represent that breed in the afternoon's Group competition, whereby the
BOB contestants compete for group placement awards of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and
4th in group. The winner of each group's first place award goes on to represent
their group in the Best in Show competition at the end of the day.
The person presenting
the dog in competition. Often a term used to refer to a professional handler.
disease (dirofilariasis) is a serious and potentially fatal disease
in dogs. It is caused by a worm called Dirofilaria immitis.
Heartworms are found
in the heart and large adjacent vessels of infected dogs. The female worm
is 6 to 14 inches (2.3 to 5.5 cm) long and 1/8 inch (5 mm) wide; the male
is about half the size of the female. One dog may have as many as 300 worms.
The average heat
cycle for a dog is approximately 3 weeks and since this an an average,
some heats are shorter (as little as 7-10 days), others are longer (4 weeks
or more). Average times between heat periods is seven months but some dogs
can cycle as early as every 4 months, some once a year.
A malignant cancer of the cells that form blood vessels.
hematoma of the
(ear) hematoma is a collection of blood, serum, or a blood clot
within the pinna (ear flap). When present, the pinna will be very thick.
The swelling may involve the entire pinna or it may involve only one area.
When something irritates the ear canal, the dog responds by scratching
or shaking the head. Excessive shaking causes blood vessels to break, resulting
in bleeding. An understanding of the ear's anatomy makes the sequence of
events more logical. The ear flap is composed of a layer of skin on each
side of a layer of cartilage. The cartilage gives the ear flap its shape.
Blood vessels go from side-to-side by passing through the cartilage. Violent
shaking causes the vessels to break as the skin slides across the cartilage.
A hereditary disorder
affecting iron metabolism in which excessive amounts of iron accumulate
in the body tissues. The disorder is characterized by diabetes mellitus,
liver dysfunction, and a bronze pigmentation of the skin.
A disorder involving hemoglobin.
hemoglobin is the protein present in red blood cells which carries oxygen
and which gives blood its color.
The expectoration of blood
or of blood stained sputum.
The handing down of
certain traits from parents to their offspring. The process of heredity
occurs through the genes.
Having two different
alleles at one or more loci in homologous chromosome pairs. One copy of
the gene is normal and one copy is mutant. A carrier, non-affected.
gastroenteritis. Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) is a disorder of dogs
which is usually fairly abrupt in onset. The significant signs of HGE are
vomiting and/or diarrhea containing variable amounts of blood. The blood
may be bright red (fresh blood) or dark (digested blood). A common description
of the stool is "like raspberry jam".
Hip Dysplasia (CHD)
Like most large, heavy
breeds, the Labrador has a problem with Canine
Hip Dysplasia (CHD).
Hip dysplasia literally
means an abnormality in the development of the hip joint. It is characterized
by a shallow acetabulum (the "cup" of the hip joint) and changes in the
shape of the femoral head (the "ball" of the hip joint). These changes
may occur due to excessive laxity in the hip joint.
Chromosomes that pair
together during the formation of sperm and eggs. Each homologue is a duplicate
of one chromosome from each parent.
Having the same allele
at one or more loci in homologous chromosome pairs. Both copies of a gene
are the SAME, either both normal or both mutant.
Proteins produced by organs
of the body that trigger activity in other locations.
Acute Moist Dermatitis, also known as hot spots, are localized, moist,
reddened bacterial infections of the skin. A hot spot starts because something
irritates the skin. The body's response is either to itch or become inflamed.
The itching then causes the dog to lick or chew the area, which further
damages the skin, and creates a cycle of itching, scratching and chewing.
A cross-bred, heterozygot
organism or cell. in molecular genetics a dna molecule with strands of
hypertension is the term
for blood pressure that is higher than normal. if repeated checks of your
blood pressure show that it is 140/90 ("140 over 90") or higher, you have
Inherited Copper Toxicosis
(ICT) is a retention of copper in the liver to the extent that, when present
in large amounts, it
becomes toxic to the
system. Copper Toxicosis has been diagnosed in 53 breeds of dogs. The discussion
that follows refers only to the type found in Bedlington Terriers. I have
not found any articles on Copper Toxicosis in Labrador
Health problems caused
by the fact that the body cannot properly fight infection.
inborn errors of metabolism
inherited diseases resulting
from alterations in genes that code for enzymes.
Outside a living organism.
in vitro fertilization
The mixing of eggs with
sperm in a laboratory dish in order to achieve conception.
An adjudicating official
tasked with evaluating and comparing how well, in his/her opinion, and
in comparison to the other dogs entered in the class that day, a dog conforms
to its breed's written standard of excellence. Other performance events
also have official judges.
A small (usually free)
publication offered by the superintendent/show secretary which lists when
and where each breed will be judged that day, and by whom. For a complete
listing of dogs, their breeders, owners, etc, buy a complete catalog.
A young person between
the ages of 10 and up to their 18th birthday, who competes with other juniors
of similar age/experience levels in exhibiting their technical skills of
handling dogs, ring conduct, and sportsmanship.
The actual competitive
classes offered for Juniors exhibiting their handling skills, which are
usually offered at dog shows and matches. The AKC and CKC offer classes
for two age groups, each divided by skill:
Novice Junior (Ages
10 up to 14, who have won less than three 1st place awards with competition)
Novice Senior (Ages
14 up to 18, who have won less than three 1st place awards with competition)
Open Junior (Ages
10 up to 14, who have won at least three 1st place awards with competition)
Open Senior (Ages
14 up to 18, who have won at least three 1st place awards with competition)
The first place winners
of each of these four classes compete for Best Junior Handler.
one of four casein components
of milk. it has been associated with milk yield and protein content.
A picture of the chromosomes
in a cell that is used to check for abnormalities. A karyotype is created
by staining the chromosomes with dye and photographing them through a microscope.
The photograph is then cut up and rearranged so that the chromosomes are
lined up into corresponding pairs.
A thin leather, nylon,
cotton, etc. piece of material usually with a metal snap or clip connector
on one end to attach to the dog's collar, and a loop on the other end for
the handler to hold on to, leading the dog around the show ring. This is
not called a leash - which is a thick piece of material used to take your
dogs for a walk or compete in obedience.
is caused by a protozoan in the Leishmania species. Skin disease, polyarthritis
(arthritis in multiple joints), mucosal disorders (lumps on tongue, gums,
etc), damage to internal organs and possibly bleeding disorders. It is
diagnosed by examination of tissues from affected dogs or by serology through
antibody titers. I am not sure if there is a consistently effective medical
treatment for this condition since there appear to be a lot of semi-effective
medications listed in the veterinary literature. The skin signs seen with
this disease include loss of hair, scaling of the skin, ulceration of the
skin on the limbs or ears, formation of nodules on the body and sometimes
Any of a group of usually
fatal diseases of the reticuloendothelial system involving uncontrolled
proliferation of the white blood cells or leucocytes. Also: form of cancer
that begins in developing blood cells in the bone marrow; characterized
by the uncontrolled growth of blood cells.
A family predisposition
to multiple cancers, caused by a mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene.
Analysis of pedigree
and the tracking of alleles of a specific gene by following the inheritance
of closely associated genes and DNA markers.
A map of relative
position of genetic loci on a chromosome, determined on the basis
of how often the loci are inherited together.
locus (pl. loci)
The position on a
chromosome of a gene or other chrromosome marker, also the DNA at that
The area of the body
between the last ribcage and the beginning of the pelvis. (In human terms,
this would be the waist). The lower portion of the loin is known as the
The patella, or knee
cap, should be located in the center of the knee joint. The term "luxating"
means out of place or dislocated. Therefore, a luxating
patella is a knee cap that moves out of its normal location.
also spelled lymphoedema, also known as lymphatic obstruction, is a condition
of localized fluid retention caused by a compromised
lymphatic system. The lymphatic system (often referred to as the body's
"second" circulatory system) collects and filters the interstitial fluid
of the body.
A general term for any
of the various tumours, usually malignant, of the lymphoid tissues.
"A Major" is a big
win for a class dog who has defeated enough dogs that day by going Winners
Dog or Winners Bitch, to earn either 3, 4, or 5 points towards its championship.
The point schedule is different for each breed, sex, and region, depending
upon entries. Also see "Points" definition below.
Used to describe a cancerous
An identifiable physical
location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be monitored. Markers can
be expressed regions of DNA (genes) or some segment of DNA with no known
function but whose pattern of inheritance can be determined.
A DNA test that identifies
the presence of the normal or mutant allele for a disease by detecting
markers that are so closely linked to the gene in question that they never,
or very rarely, separate from it.
A natural loss of the
products of conception.
An heritable change
resulting from a permanent alteration in an organism’s DNA sequence.
A DNA test that identifies
the normal or mutant allele by detecting the gene itself and its mutation,
not by using markers.Changes that occur to the order of bases appearing
in the DNA inside a cell.
An annual specialty
show hosted by the breed's national parent breed club. Usually considered
that breed's most important, competitive, and prestigious event to win
or place well in.
clear of a mutant gene; not a carrier and not affected.
Basic level Obedience
classes. Dogs successfully achieving three qualifying scores ("legs") of
at least 170 out of 200 points (including earning at least 50% of available
points for each separate exercise) are awarded the title "Companion Dog"
and are allowed to add the "CD" suffix to their registered name. Obedience
classes are divided into two groups; (A and B) - "A" for exhibitors who
have not yet added this title to a dog's name that they have either handled
or trained, and "B" or more experienced exhibitors who have. Exercises
in these classes include:
Heel on Leash and
Figure Eight........40 points
Stand for Examination....................30
Heel Free (off leash)
Recall (return to
handler and sit front)......30 points
Long Sit (1 minute)...........................30
Long Down (3 minutes)
Maximum Total Score....................200
In AKC competition
the stand for exam is done off leash and in CKC competition the Stand for
Exam is done off leash and in CKC competition the Stand for Exam is done
A handling class for
young people between the ages of 10 and up to their 14th birthday who have
not yet won three first place awards in a novice handling class *with*
A handling class for
young people between the ages of 14 and up to their 18th birthday who have
not yet won three first place awards in a novice handling class *with*
The central part of a
cell where the chromosomes are contained.
A competitive performance
event whereby the dog and handler are judged on their ability to execute
a predetermined set of exercises which display the dog's ability to adhere
to certain commands. Dogs are scored on their tractability, style, and
execution using a *very* strict scale of 0 - 200 points. Dogs achieving
3 qualifying scores ("legs") of at least 170 are awarded official AKC/CKC
titles as suffixes to their registered name. The three regular AKC/CKC
obedience classes - in order of degree of difficulty) are:
Novice (which earns
the title of "Companion Dog" or "CD")
Open (which earns
the title of "Companion Dog Excellent" or "CDX")
Utility (which earns
the title of "Utility Dog" or "UD")
There are additional
titles available for dogs competing at the highest levels, such as UDX
for dogs earning 10 qualifying scores in both Open B and Utility B, and
OTCH (Obedience Trial Champion). Obedience Trials can be held in conjunction
with all-breed conformation shows, or as independent events. The AKC is
now in the process of creating a special "juniors" obedience division to
encourage kids to get involved! Yeah AKC!
In Canada, 3 UD legs
earns the title of OTCH. In the US 100 points must be collected to earn
the title of OTCH.obesity
an excess of body fat.
defined as a body weight 20% or more above "desirable" weight, resulting
from eating too much and exercising too little.
A boney section of
the skull located at the back of the topskull. Also known as an Occipital
Protuberance. This bone, during puberty, or if not situated properly in
an adult, creates an unattractive bump (or protuberance) in the shape of
the headpiece. Situated properly, it creates a slight dome to the skull.
classes (off leash) which earn the suffix title of Companion Dog Excellent
("CDX") when they earn three qualifying scores of at least 170 out of 200
points (including earning at least 50% of available points for each separate
exercise) from three different judges. Obedience classes are divided into
two groups; (A and B) - "A" for exhibitors who have not yet added this
title to a dog's name that they have either handled or trained, and "B"
or more experienced exhibitors who have. Exercises include:
Heel Free and Figure
Drop on Recall........................30
Retrieve on Flat.......................20
Retrieve over High
Long Sit - out of
Long Down - out of
Maximum Total Score...........200
A handling class for
young people between the ages of 10 and up to their 14th birthday who have
already won three first place awards in a novice handling class *with*
A handling class for young
people between the ages of 14 and up to their 18th birthday who have already
won three first place awards in a novice handling class *with* competition.
an x-linked inborn error
of metabolism of the urea cycle which causes hyperammonemia and is treatable
with supplemental dietary arginine and low-protein diet.
a debilitating bone disease
that occurs as a result of decreased bone mass due to the aging process.
The thinning and weakening of the bones is caused by calcium loss. Osteoporosis
can progress painlessly until a bone breaks. these broken bones, also known
as fractures, occur typically in the hip, spine, and wrist.
genes that normally restrain
cell growth but, when missing or inactivated by mutation, allow cells to
Plants or animals
that live off another creature (or even inside it), obtaining food and
protection without offering any benefit in return.
parent club (aka National
The officially recognized
national organization governing each specific breed's independent specialty
clubs. Parent clubs or "National Breed Clubs" are tasked with being the
official guardians of their breeds and their written standards and stud
book in this country, and to protect the welfare and integrity of their
The area between a
dog's paws and it's lower arm, which - in the front - relates to a human
wrist area, and in the rear relates to a human's sole of foot. In the rear,
the pasterns are topped by "hocks" which relate to a human heel / ankle
bone. Often, this entire rear foot assembly in general is mistakenly referred
to as the "hock." A good way to understand and visualize the components
of a dogs foot / leg assembly is to sit in a chair barefooted and rest
your weight on just your bent toes. Your toes and ball of foot would be
the dog's "paw" or foot; your soles would be the pasterns, and your heels/ankle
would be the hocks. See also Stifle and Patella.
The knee joint of
a dog's rear legs which allow the dog's legs to bend and flex as they move.
The patellar joint consists of bone, ligaments and muscle tissue. A frequent
disorder of this joint, Patellar luxation is a looseness or hyperextension
of the joining tendons which allows the kneecap to slip off of its "runners"
causing pain and inability to move correctly. Luxated Patellae can be surgically
corrected. LP is thought to be a genetically inheritable tendency, but
can also be caused by injury.
Pattern A, B or C
refers to the specific pattern of DNA markers detected in the prcd-PRA
A special annual non-regular
competition for Open level junior handlers, sponsored by Kal-Kan Pedigree.
Pedigree designates approximately 12 of the largest shows in the country
as either Open Junior and/or Open Senior "Qualifiers." The winners of these
qualifiers and their chaperones are invited to attend an all expenses paid
special competition which is broadcast on ESPN. The winner of the Open
Senior Invitational represents the USA at the international competition
at the prestigious Crufts Dog show in England. The winner of the Open Junior
invitational competition represents the USA at the FCI World Dog Show,
which this year was held in Puerto Rico. Again, Pedigree covers all expenses
- including the wonderful extra-curricular sight seeing activities. Juniors
owe a debt of great thanks to Kal-Kan Pedigree for their outstanding efforts
and commitment to supporting the future of the sport of dog shows by sponsoring
these wonderful events.
of an organism produced by the interaction of the organism’s genotype and
its environment. For example, hair type, eye color, height.
The dyelike material
in cells that provides color to skin, eye and hair.
In conformation ("breed")
competition, CKC & AKC award between one and five points towards their
Champion of Record title - depending on the regional point schedule and/or
how many dogs defeated - to both the Winners Dog and Winners Bitch of each
breed entered at a show.To receive the title of Champion in Canada a dog
must earn at least 10 points, winning points from at least e judges. To
receive the title of Champion in US, a dog must earn at least 15 points;
at least 6 of which must come from two different judges, and be "majors."
A "major" is a substantial achievement earned by defeating a large number
of dogs relative to that breed. A major consists of either 3, 4, or 5 points.
In obedience competition,
points are awarded towards the Obedience Trial Champion title based on
scores and the number of dogs defeated. 100 points earns the title of OTCH
in the US. Points are also given out to qualifying scores in the Open and
Utility level and accumulate within a calendar year to determine placing
within the breed and within the group. While earning each title scores
are given to the dog and handler. Any score over 170 points earns a qualifying
"leg" towards their title. Three "legs" and the dog earns the title associated
with the scores.
In junior handling
competition, points are garnered by the number of competitors defeated.
In the most widely recognized scoring system, which AKC is in the process
of beginning to track, one point is awarded for each competitor you defeat.
(You do not count yourself, as you did not defeat yourself). The Best Jr.
Handler receives one point for each other competitor entered and defeated
polymerase chain reaction
a biological copy machine:
a method for making many copies of a specific dna base sequence.
pompes disease in animals
Glycogen storage disease
that has been identified in brahman and polled shorthorn cattle. Affected
animals display a loss of condition and poor growth by two months of age;
death occurs by nine months of age.
The "breastbone" on
a dog. Located on its forechest midway between its point of shoulders,
a somewhat protruding post sternum is desirable in most sporting, working,
and herding breed - as it is thought to indicate a chest cavity large enough
to accommodate lungs and heart expansion as they work in heavy physical
Atrophy - A slowly progressive inherited disease that causes irreversible
degeneration of the retinal tissue and eventual blindness.
degeneration - one form of PRA that so far can be detected in Chesapeake
Bay Retrievers, English Cocker Spaniels, Labrador Retrievers and Portuguese
A publication created
by the show superintendent or secretary which is mailed to prospective
exhibitors, listing the show giving club, the date and location of the
show, the judges, classes and awards ("premiums") offered, etc. Premium
lists contain forms and fees for entering, and list the closing date by
which entries must be received. You may request a specific premium list
by contacting the show superintendent or secretary for the show you are
interested in. The name of the super/sec for each individual show in Canada
is listed in the CKC Dogs in Canada magazine. The names of the super/sec
in the US for each individual show is listed in the AKC gazette.
Examining fetal cells
taken from the amniotic fluid, the primitive placenta (chorion), or the
umbilical cord for biochemical, chromosomal, or gene alterations.
A specific sequence
of single-stranded dna, typically labeled with a radioactive atom, which
is designed to bind to, and thereby single out, a particular segment of
The offspring of a
The basic chemicals
that make up the structure of cells and direct their activities.
pyruvate kinase deficiency
Hereditary blood disorder
characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Physical findings
associated with the disorder may include reduced levels of oxygen-carrying
hemoglobulin in the blood due to premature destruction of red blood cells
(hemolytic anemia); abnormally increased levels of bilirubin in the blood
(hyperbilirubinemia); abnormal enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly);
and/or other abnormalities.
type 1 - an early onset form of PRA detected in Irish Setters.
A gene that shows
up phenotypically in its homozygous state but is masked in the presence
of a dominant allele. Both copies of the gene must be the recessive form
in order for a recessive phenotype or characteristic to be observed.
A form of dna produced
by splicing together segments of dna from two or more organisms.
The natural process
in reproduction of breaking and rejoining DNA strands to produce new combinations
of genes and, thus generate genetic variation.
A permanent collection
of information generated by testing or examinations that is recorded and
preserved as a database. For genetic testing in dogs, the registry of results
might be maintained by the breed club, by CERF, or by another organization.
A grouping of states
with similar numbers of entries, which AKC designates as a Region for calculating
The joyful process
by which living things produce more of their own species.
reserve (or reserve
See "Winners Bitch"
and/or "Winners Dog" descriptions below.
A network of cells
in the back of the eye which convert light to a neural signal that
goes to the brain. The rods and cones are the photoreceptors - those cells
that “see” light.
The progressive and
eventual death of the cells of the retina.
A judge's assistant
who is tasked with coordinating the logistics of getting the exhibitors
and their dogs into and out of the rings efficiently. Stewards check in
the exhibitors, answer questions about ring procedures, call in the classes,
prepare the ribbons and trophies for distribution, and maintain their own
marked catalogs as back-up documentation for official placements. Stewards
are responsible for the smooth operation of their rings, and the comfort
of the judges they are assigned to assist. Some Stewards are club volunteers
while others are paid for their professional services.
To exercise and condition
a dog usually by walking, jogging, or biking.
The cells in the retina
that are involved with black and white or dim (night) vision.
A type of cancer that
starts in the bone or muscle.
A lateral curvature of
Looking for evidence
of a particular disease such as cancer in dogs with no symptoms of disease.
Checking for disease when there are no symptoms.
A show official (usually
an individual person) licensed by the CKC or AKC, and hired by the show
giving club to act as the coordinating management for the show. The secretary
usually generates and distributes the premium lists, receives the entries,
creates the catalogs, provides the equipment and materials needed, keeps
all the records and generates the reports for CKC.
are one of the most frequently seen neurological problems in dogs. A seizure
is also known as a convulsion or fit. It may have all or any combination
of the following:
1)Loss or derangement of consciousness
2)Contractions of all the muscles in the body
3)Changes in mental awareness from non-responsiveness to hallucinations
4)Involuntary urination, defecation, or salivation
5)Behavioral changes, including non-recognition of owner, viciousness,
pacing, and running in circles
The selection of certain
animals for reproduction in order to influence the traits inherited by
the next generation.
The area on the show
grounds in which you establish your home-base for grooming and holding
your dogs while you are not in the ring. Pray for a space close to the
rings with an electrical outlet!
The movement of a
dog as it is seen from the dog's side. Look for how effectively it tracks,
and how appropriately it reaches with it's front legs, and drives off of
Male parent of an
animal, especially a domestic animal such as a dog.
A small grooming tool
with a rectangular head on the end containing fine teeth with bent tops
which is used to separate and brush out topcoat and furnishings such as
Slang for a Champion
of Record who is being actively campaigned.
A show consisting
of only one breed, given by a "Specialty Club." Specialty clubs are groups
of individuals (breeders, exhibitors, pet enthusiasts, etc.) who share
a passion for a specific breed of dogs, and who host events specific to
promoting that breed. Specialties usually draw a large entry of dogs, and
wins garnered from specialties are very high visibility within the national
family of that breed's fanciers.
freezing sperm before
cancer treatment for use in the future. this procedure can allow male dogs
to father puppies after loss of fertility.
To cause your dog
to stand in a manner that best displays it's virtues. In most breeds, the
dog's forelegs are stacked in alignment with their withers, and their rear
pasterns are squarely aligned and presented at a 90 degree angle from the
floor. There are exceptions by breed i.e. German Shepherd Dogs, etc. One
may "Hand stack" their dog by manually placing each foot in it's best position,
or else "Free stack" by using a hands free method of using bait, verbal
commands, body language, or lead correction to get the dog to stack itself.
The officially recognized
written description of an ideal specimen of a specific breed. This is the
document judges are tasked to interpret when judging in the breed ring,
where dogs are judged as to how well they conform to this written standard
of excellence. Original breed standards are written by the national parent
clubs of each individual breed, and are then adopted by the Kennel Club
of the appropriate county, ie CKC/AKC.
See "Post Sternum"
See "Ring Steward"
The curved area on
a dog's rear legs containing the thighs and patella (knee). The actual
bend of stifle regulates how much flexibility the dog will have to drive
off of its rear.
The skeletal junction
on the skull's foreface between the back of the muzzle and the beginning
of the topskull. Collies and Afghans have very little "stop" and Chihuahuas,
Labrador Retrievers, and St. Bernards have a great deal of "stop."
A show official (usually
a professional show managing company) licensed by the CKC/AKC, and hired
by the show giving club to act as the coordinating management team for
the show. The superintendent usually generates and distributes the premium
lists, receives the entries, creates the catalogs, provides the equipment
and materials needed, keeps all the records and generates the reports for
the appropriate kennel club.
A non-regular class,
usually offered at specialty shows, which are specifically designed to
recognize outstanding young dogs and puppies. Winners of Best in Sweeps,
Best Opposite Sex in Sweeps, and often all of the class placement winners,
receive a portion of the entry fees as prizes for their placement. Sweepstakes
are the only classes where money prizes are normally awarded.
A recognizable pattern
or group of multiple signs, symptoms or malformations that characterize
a particular condition
leads, grooming products, combs, brushes, shears, etc) used to prepare
and show a dog. Hopefully found in a "Tack Box" when not in use.
The most common tapeworm
of dogs (and cats) is called Dipylidium caninum. This parasite attaches
to the small intestinal wall by hook-like mouthparts. Adult tapeworms may
reach 8 inches (20 cm) in length. The adult worm is actually made up of
many small segments about 1/8 inch (3 mm) long. As the tail end of the
worm matures, the terminal segments break off and pass into the stool.
Occasionally, the mobile segments can be seen crawling near the anus or
on the surface of a fresh bowel movement. These segments look like grains
of rice and contain tapeworm eggs; the eggs are released into the environment
when the segment dries. The dried segments are small (about 1/16", or 2
mm), hard and golden in color. These dried segments can sometimes be seen
stuck to the hair around the dog's anus.
A dog's way of responding
to the world. Examples of temperament include shy, bold, risk taking, and
-- Nature's Vampires
Even though people
commonly think of ticks as "bugs," they aren't bugs or even insects. They
are related to insects, but are in fact, arachnids. Arachnids are eight-legged
creatures that include spiders, scorpions, mites, and, of course, ticks.
There are two types
of ticks -- the soft ticks and the hard ticks. Soft ticks, as the name
suggests, have soft bodies, bodies that can swell enormously while they
feed. Soft ticks commonly are active only at night when they attach to
a passing host, take their meal in a matter of hours, and drop off before
sunrise. Since we tend to keep our pets inside, or at least confined at
night, soft ticks are not a common problem with pets.
Hard ticks, on the
other hand, are by far the most commonly found type of tick on pets. Hard
ticks are just that -- they are covered with a hard, inflexible cuticle
that does not allow their bodies to expand. When feeding, the hard tick
ingests the host's blood, concentrates and retains the solid material from
the blood, and returns the liquid plasma back into the host. As it does
this, the tick may also inject a disease organism into your pet.
The spinal section
of a dog from it's withers (top of shoulder blades) to the end of it's
croup (at the tail root).
Ways of looking, thinking,
or being. Traits that are genetic are passed down through the genes from
parents to offspring.
Containing genes from
A disorder of tyrosine
metabolism characterized by the buildup of tyrosine and its metabolites
resulting in hepatic and renal damage.
A technique for looking
inside the body by using sound waves to create images.
Highest level of obedience
classes for people seeking to earn the suffix title of Utility Dog ("UD")
when they earn three qualifying scores of at least 170 out of 200 points
(including earning at least 50% of available points for each separate exercise)
from three different judges. Obedience classes are divided into two groups;
(A and B) - "A" for exhibitors who have not yet added this title to a dog's
name that they have either handled or trained, and "B" or more experienced
exhibitors who have. Exercises (all off leash) include:
Article #1.....30 points *
Article #2.....30 points *
Moving Stand and Examination........30
Maximum Total Score....................200
* The scent discrimination
exercise is different in both Canada and in the US. In Canada, there are
3 articles, wood, metal and leather. In the US only the wood and metal
In the US, there are
A and B classes. Once the UD is achieved in the US, competitors continue
to compete for placements to accumulate 100 points to earn their OTCH designation.
In Canada, there is only the one Utility class. In Canada, 3 legs earns
the title UD and OTCH.
A non-regular but
competitive class for dogs at least 7-8 years old, designed to honor those
dogs who have maintained their structural integrity, health, vigor and
love of showing into their golden years. Boxes of Kleenex are mandatory
at ringside...trust me.
A noncellular biological
entity that can reproduce only within a host cell.
Extremely small and simple
life-forms, made merely of a protein shell and a genome. A virus reproduces
by inserting its genome into the cells of other life-forms. As those cells
duplicate, so does the virus.
A very prestigious
all-breed /all-champions limited entry benched show held in New York City's
Madison Square Garden each February, The Westminster Kennel Club show is
legendary. The WKC show is the 2nd oldest sporting event in the United
States, younger only than the Kentucky Derby. A major social event as well,
"The Garden" is an event every dog lover should attend at least once. Normally
nationally televised over two nights. Also see "Garden" above.
The point at which
the shoulder blades (scapulae) meet. This critical structural point and
its adjoining muscles and ligaments regulate how effectively a dog is able
to cover ground with the rest of its front assembly. the tightness or looseness
of the shoulders can make the difference between a sloppy thrown front
and a clean tracking one. The angulation that the shoulders make create
the transition between the neck and spine, and contribute to how easily
a dog can reach ahead of itself and how it carries it's head. The withers
is also the point at which actual HEIGHT of a dog is measured with a tool
called a wicket. The height of the dog needs to be determined for obedience,
agility and flyball competition as it will determine the jumping height
of the dog.
To give birth to a
litter of puppies. A pregnant bitch is considered to be "in whelp." When
she is giving birth, she is said to be "whelping."
The class (aka "unfinished"
or "non-champion") bitch who has defeated all other class bitches of that
breed at that show is the ONE female of that breed to be awarded points
towards her championship . The first place winners from each of the bitch
classes in that breed that day**, compete for Winners Bitch.
**This would be the
1st place 6-9 month Puppy Bitch, the 1st place 9-12 Puppy Bitch, the 1st
place 12-18 Junior Bitch, the 1st place Novice Bitch, the 1st Place Bred-by
Bitch, the First place Can-Bred Bitch, and the 1st place Open Bitch.
After one Winners
Bitch is selected, the bitch who originally took 2nd place to her in the
classes is asked to come in and compete with the remaining bitches for
"Reserve Winners Bitch." The winner of the "Reserve" is like a "runner-
up" and is only awarded points if, in the future, the Winners Bitch is
found to be disqualified for some reason and the award is disallowed.
During the Best of
Breed competition, which is held after all class dogs (male and female)
of that breed have been judged, the Winners Bitch and Winners Dog compete
with each other for "Best of Winners." They may *also* be awarded Best
of Breed or Best of Opposite Sex to BOB against the other, already finished
champions in the BOB competition.
Same as above, but
for males. Substitute "Dog" for "Bitch" where appropriate.
A rare genetic defect
in ultraviolet radiation induced dna repair mechanisms; characterized by
severe sensitivity to all sources of uv radiation (especially sunlight).
Xeroderma pigmentosum is categorized in complementation groups according
to the capacity of the body to repair dna. Groups a, c, d and variant make
up over 90% of xp cases. Group a, for example, has the lowest level of
dna repair and the most neurological manifestations.